Basic linux commans with details | UrTrick World

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Basic linux commans with details

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Hello friend if you are new in kali linux, then you must face a command UI. When you jump from windwo or mac which are mostly user friendly OS,you face a lot of difficulties in Kali linux yeah if you wanna be a hacker forget user friendly OS.
Ok today i m gonna told you a list of linux command which will help you in working with kali. 
You don't need to read and remember all at once just practice with them code. Just take a print of all commands and try to type with the help of printed paper and practice.It will take a little time but in few days you will are able to type all command without any printed paper.

Before we go to whole command list lets run some basic command.

Also read: How to install kali in android?

Basic Basic commands for networking

Codes: ifconfig; route -n; cat /etc/resolv.conf; cat /etc/network/interfaces; cat /etc/hosts

Detail of each code:

ifconfig: Displays various bits of information about the NIC (e.g. IP addresses, subnet, MAC address etc).

Note: ifconfig -a, will display information about ALL NICs (including the ones that are currently down).
root@kali:~# ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:0b:29:9c:c9:b3  
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:ff9b:c9a3/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:292216 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:135628 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:431730275 (411.7 MiB)  TX bytes:7398306 (7.0 MiB)
          Interrupt:19 Base address:0x2000 

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:65536  Metric:1
          RX packets:26 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:26 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:1648 (1.6 KiB)  TX bytes:1648 (1.6 KiB)

You can also alter the state of the NIC by place it in either 'down' or 'up' state, which disables or enables the NIC
root@kali ~$ ifconfig eth0 down
root@kali ~$ ping -c 1
ping: unknown host
root@kali ~$ ifconfig eth0 up
root@kali ~$ ping -c 1
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from ( icmp_req=1 ttl=128 time=18.0 ms

--- ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 18.061/18.061/18.061/0.000 ms
root@kali ~$

route -n :Displays the routing table (gateways information)
root@kali:~# route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface         UG    0      0        0 eth0   U     0      0        0 eth0

cat /etc/resolv.conf Displays the DNS information
root@kali:~# cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Generated by NetworkManager
domain localdomain
search localdomain

cat /etc/network/interfaces 
Displays the network interface configuration
Note>> eth0 is setup to use DHCP.
root@kali:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

cat /etc/hosts Static values for hostname lookups
Note: Editing these values, will NOT change your hostname (for that look into hostname & /etc/hostname).
root@kali:~# cat /etc/hosts localhost kali-offsec

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

Wifi Related commands:

airmon-zc --verbose

A modified version of airmon-ng, which helps with troubleshooting and monitor mode.
root@kali ~$ airmon-zc --verbose

Linux kali 3.12-kali1-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3.12.6-2kali1 (2014-01-06) i686 GNU/Linux
Detected VM using lscpu
This appears to be a VMware Virtual Machine
If your system supports VT-d, it may be possible to use PCI devices
If your system does not support VT-d, you can only use USB wifi cards

K indicates driver is from 3.12-kali1-686-pae
V indicates driver comes directly from the vendor, almost certainly a bad thing
S indicates driver comes from the staging tree, these drivers are meant for reference not actual use, BEWARE
? indicates we do not know where the driver comes from... report this

X[PHY]Interface Driver[Stack]-FirmwareRev Chipset Extended Info

K[phy0]wlan0 rt73usb[mac80211]-1.7 Linksys WUSB54GC v1 802.11g Adapter [Ralink RT73]

root@kali ~$
By using the "--verbose", airmon-zc provide a large amount of very useful information when trying to troubleshoot 802.11 NIC issues.

rfkill Enables (and disables) wireless devices.
root@kali ~$ rfkill list
2: phy2: Wireless LAN
Soft blocked: no
Hard blocked: no
root@kali ~$

iwconfig Displays & controls 802.11 NICs.
root@kali ~$ iwconfig
wlan0     IEEE 802.11bg  ESSID:off/any  
          Mode:Managed  Access Point: Not-Associated   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry  long limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Encryption key:off
          Power Management:on
root@kali ~$

airmon-ng Automates turning wireless cards into monitor mode
root@kali ~$ airmon-ng

Interface Chipset Driver

wlan0 Ralink 2573 USB rt73usb - [phy1]

root@kali ~$

apropos - Search Help manual pages (man -k)
apt-get - Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aptitude - Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aspell - Spell Checker
awk - Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index

basename - Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc - Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg - Send to background
break - Exit from a loop •
builtin - Run a shell builtin
bzip2 - Compress or decompress named file(s)
cal - Display a calendar
case - Conditionally perform a command
cat - Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
cd - Change Directory
cfdisk - Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp - Change group ownership
chmod - Change access permissions
chown - Change file owner and group
chroot - Run a command with a different root directory
chkconfig - System services (runlevel)
cksum - Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear - Clear terminal screen
cmp - Compare two files
comm - Compare two sorted files line by line
command - Run a command - ignoring shell functions •
continue - Resume the next iteration of a loop •
cp - Copy one or more files to another location
cron - Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab = Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit - Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut - Divide a file into several parts
date - Display or change the date & time
dc - Desk Calculator
dd - Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescue - Data recovery tool
declare - Declare variables and give them attributes •
df Display - free disk space
diff - Display the differences between two files
diff3 - Show differences among three files
dig - DNS lookupdir - Briefly list directory contents
dircolors - Colour setup for `ls'
dirname - Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs - Display list of remembered directories
dmesg - Print kernel & driver messages
du - Estimate file space usage
echo - Display message on screen •
egrep - Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject - Eject removable media
enable - Enable and disable builtin shell commands •
env - Environment variables
ethtool - Ethernet card settings
eval - Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec - Execute a command
exit - Exit the shell
expect - Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand - Convert tabs to spaces
export - Set an environment variable
expr - Evaluate expressions
false - Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat - Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk - Partition table manipulator for Linux
fg - Send job to foreground
fgrep - Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file - Determine file type
find - Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt - Reformat paragraph text
fold - Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for - Expand words, and execute commands
format - Format disks or tapes
free - Display memory usage
fsck - File system consistency check and repair
ftp - File Transfer Protocol
function - Define Function Macros
fuser - Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
gawk - Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts - Parse positional parameters
grep - Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupadd - Add a user security group
groupdel - Delete a group
groupmod - Modify a group
groups - Print group names a user is in
gzip - Compress or decompress named file(s)
hash - Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head - Output the first part of file(s)
help - Display help for a built-in command •
history - Command History
hostname - Print or set system name
iconv - Convert the character set of a file
id - Print user and group id's
if - Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig - Configure a network interface
ifdown - Stop a network interface
ifup - Start a network interface up
import - Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install - Copy files and set attributes
jobs - List active jobs •
join - Join lines on a common field
kill - Stop a process from running
killall - Kill processes by name
less - Display output one screen at a time
let - Perform arithmetic on shell variables •
ln - Create a symbolic link to a file
local - Create variables •
locate - Find files
logname - Print current login name
logout - Exit a login shell •
look - Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc - Line printer control program
lpr - Off line print
lprint - Print a file
lprintd - Abort a print job
lprintq - List the print queue
lprm - Remove jobs from the print queue
ls - List information about file(s)
lsof - List open files
make - Recompile a group of programs
man - Help manual
mkdir - Create new folder(s)
mkfifo - Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs - Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod - Make block or character special files
more - Display output one screen at a time
mount - Mount a file system
mtools - Manipulate MS-DOS files
mtr - Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mv - Move or rename files or directories
mmv - Mass Move and rename (files)
netstat - Networking information
nice - Set the priority of a command or job
nl - Number lines and write files
nohup - Run a command immune to hangups
notify-send - Send desktop notifications
nslookup - Query Internet name servers interactively
open - Open a file in its default application
op - Operator access
passwd - Modify a user password
paste - Merge lines of files
pathchk - Check file name portability
ping - Test a network connection
pkill - Stop processes from running
popd - Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr - Prepare files for printing
printcap - Printer capability database
printenv - Print environment variables
printf - Format and print data •
ps - Process status
pushd - Save and then change the current directory
pwd - Print Working Directory
quota - Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck - Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl - Set disk quotas
ram - Ram disk device
rcp - Copy files between two machines
read - Read a line from standard input •
readarray - Read from stdin into an array variable •
readonly - Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot - Reboot the system
rename - Rename files
renice - Alter priority of running processes
remsync - Synchronize remote files via email
return - Exit a shell function
rev - Reverse lines of a file
rm - Remove files
rmdir - Remove folder(s)
rsync - Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
screen - Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp - Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff - Merge two files interactively
sed - Stream Editor
select - Accept keyboard input
seq - Print numeric sequences
set - Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp - Secure File Transfer Program
shift - Shift positional parameters
shopt - Shell Options
shutdown - Shutdown or restart linux
sleep - Delay for a specified time
slocate - Find files
sort - Sort text files
source - Run commands from a file `.'
split - Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh - Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace - Trace system calls and signal
ssu - Substitute user identity
sudo - Execute a command as another user
sum - Print a checksum for a file
suspend - Suspend execution of this shell •
symlink - Make a new name for a file
sync - Synchronize data on disk with memory
tail - Output the last part of file
tar - Tape ARchiver
tee - Redirect output to multiple files
test - Evaluate a conditional expression
time - Measure Program running time
times - User and system times
touch - Change file times
tampstop - List processes running on the system
traceroute - Trace Route to Host
trap - Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr - Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true - Do nothing, successfully
tsort - Topological sort
tty - Print filename of terminal on stdin
type - Describe a command •
ulimit - Limit user resources •
umask - Users file creation mask
umount - Unmount a device
unalias - Remove an alias •
uname - Print system information
unexpand - Convert spaces to tabs
uniq - Uniquify files
units - Convert units from one scale to another
unset - Remove variable or function names
unshar - Unpack shell archive scripts
until - Execute commands (until error)
uptime - Show uptime
useradd - Create new user account
userdel - Delete a user account
usermod - Modify user account
users - List users currently logged in
uuencode - Encode a binary file
uudecode - Decode a file created by uuencode
v - Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vdir - Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vi - Text Editorvmstat - Report virtual memory statistics
wait - Wait for a process to complete 
watch - Execute/display a program periodically
wc - Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis - Search the user's $path, man pages and source files for a program
which - Search the user's $path for a program file
while - Execute commands
who - Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami - Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
wget - Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTPwrite - Send a message to another user
xargs - Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open - Open a file or URL in the user's preferred application.

yes - Print a string until interrupted
.- Run a command script in the current shell
!!- Run the last command again
Hope you like this command tutorial

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